Well bubbling along in another island dispute concerning the Kuril island chain; a grouping of volcanic islands that sit in-between Japan’s northern Hokkaido and Russian Kamchatka.
The Kuril Islands form the top part of the pacific RING OF FIRE! The southern most mere kilometres from Hokkaido the northern most a gnats cock off of Kamchatka. The islands are currently inhabited by almost 20,000 people, mostly Russians but with some Ainu other Baltic populations. The islands are home to many Russian ‘soldiers’ known as the Border Guard Service. The islands are known for their severe weather of long stormy winters followed by short and notoriously foggy summers. It is these foggy summers and the remoteness of the islands that made them the perfect launch site for the Pearl Habour attack.
In 1855 the islands were recognised as Japanese territory. After Japan’s second world war defeat, all of its territories were occupied by the Allied forces. The Allied Powers agreed that Japan’s main islands would be under American occupation; Taiwan would fall under Chinese occupation; and that Sakhalin Island and the Kurile Islands would be occupied by the Soviet forces.
In 1951 when the San Francisco Treaty was signed the allied powers handed Japanese land back, but Russia refused to sign over the Kurils. To this day Japan and Russia have never formalized any peace agreement, technically meaning the Second World War isn’t over.
As of 2015 Japan has been offered the southern most islands by Putin but it has refused as the offered land only counts for 7% of the disputed area.
Again, as with the Senkoku islands, this isn’t a “we miss our ancestral land!” dispute. The Kurils are surrounded by some of the most fertile fishing grounds in the North Pacific. There is also a possibility that there are oil and gas reserves. The island also has large deposits of various polymetallic ores including the rare mineral, rhenium.
In 2006, the Russian government pledged $630m to including improving energy and transport infrastructure on the Kuril island chain. The Japanese government also maintains public awareness of the dispute by allowing visits by former residents, displaced after the war to pray at their family shrines.
There are a few things that come to mind when one thinks of Japan; sushi, geisha, tea ceremony, busy street crossings, hard-line communist terrorists.
‘What?!’ You might say, ‘clearly Joekyo you are mistaken’
Well The Japanese Red Army is here to mess your stereotypes up.
Founded in 1971 by Fusako Shigenobu, the JRA was dedicated to overthrowing the Japanese government and the monarchy throughout the 70s and 80s.
Fusako had been a leading member in the Red Army Faction, a militant new-left communist group. In 1970 it teamed up with a Maoist group to form the United Red Army. Just a few months before a major purge, which left twelve members dead and started a week-long police siege, Fusako Shigenobu and a few select members had moved to Lebanon to promote International Revolutionary Solidarity, a movement which aimed to unite the different revolutionary groups throughout the world. Soon after arriving in the Middle East Shigenobu cited geographical and ideological differences with the URA as her reason for starting the Japanese Red Army. She allied the group the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine.
Fusako Shigenobu was born in 1945 in Setagaya, Tokyo. Her father had been a teacher and an Imperial Japanese Army Major stationed in Manchuria during World War II. Fusako became involved in activism whilst studying at Meiji University. At the time in Japan (along with the rest of the world) leftist ideology was rampant in university campuses. Fusako started protesting increases in tuition fees. She quickly rose up the ranks of the new-left movement and became one of their top leaders. Fusako Shigenobu was at one time judged to be the most feared female terrorist in the world.
The group was responsible for a large number of violent acts. In 1972 three members walked into Lod airport (now Ben Gurion Airport) in Tel Aviv and used guns and grenades to kill 26 and injure 80. Two of the attackers were killed whilst another Kozo Okamoto survived and was captured.
In 1973 the group hijacked a JAL plane bound for Tokyo and demanded the release of Kozo. When this was refused the group flew the plane to Libya, released the crew and passengers and blew the aircraft up. The JRA was involved in numerous hostage situations throughout the 70s and 80s. After the Lod massacre they became the most well-known leftist terror group in the world.
In Novemeber 2000 Shigenobu was arrested in Osaka. She was found with forged passports and $9000 in cash. It was a shock for Japanese people to see a middle aged woman in handcuffs, thumbs up shouting at reporters “I’ll fight on”. In 2006 she was sentenced to 20 years for using a forged passport, aiding a member of the JRA in obtaining a forged passport and attempted manslaughter by way of planning and commanding the hostage taking at the French embassy in The Hague in 1974. A key member of the defense at her trial was the hijacker of TWA Flight 840 (1969) and current member of the Palestinian National Council Leila Khaled.
In 2001 after the Twin Towers attack, Al-Jazeera and the AFP both received anonymous calls claiming the attack in the name of the JRA. This was debunked after Al-Qaeda and Osama Bin Laden were officially blamed.
Most of the groups members have been arrested and imprisoned. In 2015 Tsutomu Shirosaki, who had been imprisoned in Mississippi for his involvement in a mortar attack on the American Embassy in Jakarta, was arrested as he returned to Japan. He had been one of the prisoners freed in 1977 after the JRA hijacked a JAL flight from Paris to Tokyo.
The Japanese Red Army have been portrayed in books and film. In 2010 Fusako and her daughter Mei were featured in the documentary Children of the Revolution which tells the story of Shigenobu and German activist Ulrike Meinhof through the eyes of their daughters. Mei Shigenobu is the daughter of Fusako and an unnamed Lebanese freedom fighter. She is currently a Japanese citizen working for news agencies. Fusako wrote about her experiences raising a child in Lebanon in her book I Decided to Give Birth to You Under an Apple Tree (2001).
Today the JRA have disbanded stating that having lost their base in Lebanon and the changing political environment of the world, the aims of the JRA can no longer be met by such a group.
Their successors are known as the Movement Rentai.
It’s Tuesday morning. The sound of your alarm pierces through the dull patter of rain at the window. The grey sky as dark and ominous as your mood. dragging yourself from the warmth of your bed you fumble for phone. AHHHH mendokusai.
It’s Friday afternoon with every passing second you can feel the weekend ahead of you, just when it seems you have a handle on the week, the finish line is in view an email comes in ‘This needs to be done by the end of the day’. AHHHH mendokusai
Sunday evening, lounging slumberous on the sofa barely taking in the meaningless TV you’ve been watching for the last four hours you glance over to see you haven’t actually done the washing up yet. AHHHHHHHHH MENDOKUSAI!
Mendokusai is an untranslatable word in Japanese. it sums up both the tiresome mundanity of a situation and the enormity of a simple task when you are in no good God-damned mood. It is probably one of the first words any gaijin in Japan learns (beside NAMA KUDASAI!)
Type mendokusai into google translate an you will be told it means troublesome. but when you just can’t be bothered with anything, ‘tiresome’ doesn’t have the same cathartic effect as a nice long drawn-out MENDOKUSAI!
“Pretentious, awkward, difficult to approach, prickly, too fond of her tales, haughty, prone to versifying, disdainful, cantankerous, scornful” and the mother of the modern novel.
Lady Murasaki, was a courtier at the Heian court at the end of the first millennium. She wrote the massively influential The Tale of Genji (Genji Monogartari); a novel that is still considered one of the most important pieces of Japanese literature. The novel is a staple of the Japanese curriculum.
The Heian period (794-1185) was the most glorious period in Japanese history. Moving from Nagaokakyo to Heian-Kyo (present day Kyoto) to counter balance the overly-powerful Buddhists in Nara. The period is defined as one of decadence and refinement.
Through careful manipulation and marriages the Fujiwara clan dominated Heian politics. Lady Murasaki was born c.973 to the northern branch of the Fujiwara’s. Although her great grandfather had been the first regent of the period, by the time of Murasaki’s birth her family had fallen from grace; despite their status her family had a literary reputation with many of her ancestors being famous poets.
Although in Heian society husbands and wives kept separate households with children raised by their mothers; Murasaki lived in her father’s house along with a number of siblings (it is most likely that their house was on Teramachi Street in Kyoto). From a young age she showed talent in her writing and classical Chinese (a subject usually taught to boys only) Her father often said;
“Just my luck, what a pity she wasn’t born a man”
After a short marriage to a much older second cousin and the death of her brothers, Murasaki was brought to court by the mighty Michinaga. Michinaga’s time as regent marked the peak of Fujiwara power. He married of (pimped out) four daughters to four emperors.
Murasaki was brought to attend the court of MIchinagas 12 year-old daughter Soshi who he had named Empress (even though the current Empress was still alive). The relationship between Murasaki and Michinaga was most definitely one with benefits. In her diary she documents having to fight off many advances from Michinaga. In the translation of her diary it describes the way she would bore him with the minutiae of her life at court, his daughters comings and goings and even the birth of his grandson in ‘elaborate’ detail.
Of course the sausage-fest that is Japanese history, the names of women are not officially documented. Women were known by nicknames. Murasaki had two nicknames; one being ‘Our Lady of the Chronicles’ which she most likely earned by teaching Soshi Chinese. The nickname Murasaki came from a character in the Tales of Genji. The only hint of what Murasaki’s real name could have been comes from Michinaga writing down some of his favorite ladies-in-waiting. In a 1007 diary entry Fujiwara Takako is mentioned.
The Heian court was immensely fashionable. Courtiers were increasingly isolated with very little to do art, writing and sex was all they had. Women wore floor length hair, white faces and blackened their teeth. Their clothes were cumbersome and multilayered. The well known Hinamatsuri dolls are an example of what was fashionable at the time. Women held salons, vying for status and respect. The company was carefully selected, the original Empress Teishi had had Sei Shonagon, celebrated author of The Pillow Book. Soshi was surrounded by talented female authors such as Izumi Shikibu and Akazome Emon. Murasaki showed her exactly how she viewed her rivals, writing of Izumi in her diary as;
“…not very satisfactory. She has a gift for dashing off informal compositions in a careless running-hand; but in poetry she needs either an interesting subject or some classic model to imitate.”
It is not known when or where Murasaki started the Tale of Genji. It is possible she wrote the first chapters for a private benefactor. At the time paper, ink and calligraphers were expensive; it is almost a certainty that Michinaga provided Murasaki with the tools to complete the manuscript. The Tale of Genji is a novel in three parts. It spans over a thousand pages and is thought to have taken over a decade to complete. It tells the story of the gorgeous ‘shining prince’ Genji, continuing after his death.
She redefined the genre of the monogatari, avoiding the tradition of fantasy and fairy tale clichés. Murasaki’s contrast of formal Chinese style and mundane topics give the work a satirical voice. The themes found in the book are common for the period. By far Murasaki’s favourite phrase is ‘物の哀れ (mono no aware) – the sorrow of human existance’ she uses it over a thousand times. Genji is comely, refined, gifted yet sympathetic and human. Historians have deduced that in the book Murasaki found an escape from her boring life at court. Helen McCullough atributes the universal appeal of The Tale of Genji to its ability to;
“transcend both its genre and age. Its basic subject matter and setting—love at the Heian court—are those of the romance, and its cultural assumptions are those of the mid-Heian period, but Murasaki Shikibu’s unique genius has made the work for many a powerful statement of human relationships, the impossibility of permanent happiness in love … and the vital importance, in a world of sorrows, of sensitivity to the feelings of others.”
There is a running theme throughout that Prince Genji is able to recognize the inner beauty and fragility of his many lovers.
The Tale of Genji was enormously popular. It is generally thought that it was finished by 1008, but before that Murasaki notes in her diary that Michinaga regularly came to steal chapters. Despite it being written in Japanese the Emperor had it read to him. The book was scarce in the provinces but copies were highly sought after. By as little as 100-years later it was seen as a classic. Poets in the medieval ages used it for references of classical diction. The language used in The Genji Monogatari was seen as pure Japanese, a Japanese that needed preserving.
The fact that the novel was written in Japanese helped its popularity. At the time of its writing Japan was beginning to become increasingly insular. The Tang Dynasty (Japan’s touchstone to Chinese culture) was losing its grip. By the end of the Heian period Japan had ceased diplomatic visits that wouldn’t recommence for almost 500 years.
The Tale of Genji has had a huge cultural impact on Japan. Murasaki’s written work (along with other Heian poets) forged the Japanese language and its mix of kanji and hiragana.
Its legacy has been used by many different groups from far-right nationalist claiming it as the finest piece of literature (ever, of all time) to the Japanese treasury that put a scene from the novel on the 2000 yen note.
The date of Murasaki’s death is not clear, some have her dying in 1014 others have her living to 1025. At the time of her death she would have been around forty to fifty. She is buried in a small garden in the city of Kyoto. In the year 2008 Kyoto held a year of celebrations to commemorate one thousand years of The Tale of Genji.
We’ve all been there. Hair is lacklustre, limply hanging from your head, a constant reminder of the rut you’ve been stuck in. The style once perfect has now grown ratty, no amount of styling or primping could restore it to its once former glory of a month ago.
Confidence in tatters and your very self questioned, you make your way to the salon. Hopes of follicular glory dance sparklingly behind your eyes, you sit before the mirror, taking a last look at the person you once were, this will be the style that changes who you are. The stylist starts, tentative at first, as the locks fall to the floor you say a short prayer to the gods of allure. More and more come away, your head feels light, airy.
Then you notice. More is coming off one side. Then you feel what must have been a mistake at the back, the stylist who once held all your trust in her hands seems tired, angry, distant. Visions of your perfect hair fall away like so many unfulfilled dreams.
“Thanks its perfect…..yeah just right” you offer with a smile that doesn’t reach your eyes.
At home you wallow, resigned to a few days of hats. Maybe next time.
This is clearly a regular occurrence in Japan as the language has Ageotori, a word to describe the state of looking worse after a haircut.
Ono no Komachi (c 825-900) was a famous and prolific waka poet. She is placed within the Thirty Six Poetry Immortals.
Komachi was renowned for her beauty and charm. As a poet, she specialized in erotic love themes, mostly about anxiety, solitude and passionate love.
Komachi’s birthplace is unknown but, according to one tradition, she was born in what is now Akita Prefecture (northern Japan), Her social status is also uncertain but she is believed to have been the daughter of a low ranking lord and subsequently become an emperor’s lady-in-waiting , possibly Emperor Ninmyō (r. 833-850).
Legends abound of Komachi in love. The most well known is a story about her relationship with a high-ranking courtier. Komachi promised that if he visited her every night for a hundred nights, then she would become his lover. He obliged but failed once towards the end. Despairing, he fell ill and subsequently died. When Komachi learned of his death she was overcome with grief.
Komachi’s old age when she had lost her beauty, been abandoned by her former lovers, and now regrets her life, wandering around as a lonely beggar woman is also frequently portrayed in later-period literature including many noh plays. What is fiction and what is fact is the subject of debate.
Today the name Komachi still evokes the image of classical feminine beauty and is a popular girls name to this day
Though I go to you
ceaselessly along dream paths,
the sum of those trysts
is less than a single glimpse
granted in the waking world.
Rokurokubi are normal women by day, but at night they gain the ability to stretch their necks to ridiculous proportions.
It is said that rokurokubi live undetected during daylight and may even take mortal husbands trying to keep their demonic forms secret. They are tricksters by nature, however, and their compulsion to frighten and spy on human beings is hard to resist. Some rokurokubi thus resort to revealing themselves only to drunks, the sleeping, or the blind in order to satisfy these urges.
Other stories say that the rokurokubis were humans who had broken Buddhist law. They feast on the blood, favoring that of those who had also broken religious doctrine.
In the run up to halloween, I want to introduce you to the strange and wonderful world of the yōkai.
The story of the Shirime starts with a lone samurai walking to Kyoto. On hearing someone calling to him he turns to find a naked man, ass up. From where the man’s poop chute should be a HUGE GLITTERING EYE opens.
The famous haiku poet and artist Yosa Buson liked the story so much he included the Shirime in many of his yōkai pictures, like the one above.
Today is the 213th birthday of legendary Japanese inventor Hisashige Tanaka (田中久重).
Born in 1799 in Chikugo prefecture (modern-day Fukuoka), he invented a loom at the age of 14. By his 20’s he had become famous with aristocrats for his karakuri dolls which were capable of complex movements.
In 1834, he started his experiments in pneumatics, hydraulics and various forms of lighting based on rapeseed oil. However, he soon moved on to Kyoto, where he studied rangaku, or western learning, and astronomy. With the development of the Sonnō jōimovement, the atmosphere in Kyoto became increasingly dangerous towards foreign influences and technology, and Tanaka was invited by Sano Tsunetami to the Saga Domain in Kyūshū.
While in Saga, Tanaka designed and built Japan’s first domestically made steam locomotive and steam warship from a Dutch reference book, and a demonstration of a steam engine conducted by a Russian diplomat during his visit to Nagasaki in 1853.
He was also involved in the construction of a reverberatory furnace in Saga for the production of Armstrong guns. In 1864, he returned to Fukuoka, where he assisted in the development of modern weaponry.
In 1873, six years after the Meiji Restoration, Tanaka, by then aged 74 was asked by the Ministry of Industries to come to Tokyo to make telegraphs.
After his death in 1881, his son founded Tanaka Engineering Works The company changed its name after Tanaka’s death to Shibaura Engineering Works in 1904, and after a merger with Tokyo Denki became Tokyo Shibaura Denki, more commonly known today as Toshiba.